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FCL provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numericalgorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their own source code with .NET Framework and other libraries. .NET Framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio.
.NET Framework started out as a proprietary framework, although the company worked to standardize the software stack almost immediately, even before its first release. Despite the standardization efforts, developers—particularly those in the free and open-source software communities—expressed their uneasiness with the selected terms and the prospects of any free and open-source implementation, especially with regard to software patents. Since then, Microsoft has changed .NET development to more closely follow a contemporary model of a community-developed software project, including issuing an update to its patent promise to address the concerns.
.NET Framework led to a family of .NET platforms targeting mobile computing, embedded devices, alternative operating systems and browser plugins. A reduced version of the framework, .NET Compact Framework, is available on Windows CEplatforms, including Windows Mobile devices such as smartphones. .NET Micro Framework is targeted at severely resource-constrained embedded devices. Silverlight was available as a web browser plugin. Mono is available for many operating systems and is customized into popular smartphone operating systems (Android and iOS) and game engines. .NET Coretargets cross-platform and cloud-based workloads in addition to the Universal Windows Platform (UWP).
When an application is first launched, the .NET Framework compiles the CIL code into executable code using its just-in-time compiler, and caches the executable program into the .NET Native Image Cache. Due to caching, the application launches faster for subsequent launches, although the first launch is usually slower. To increase speed of the first launch, developers may use the Native Image Generator utility to manually compile and cache any .NET application, ahead-of-time.
The garbage collector, which is integrated into the environment, can introduce unanticipated delays of execution over which the developer has little direct control. “In large applications, the number of objects that the garbage collector needs to deal with can become very large, which means it can take a very long time to visit and rearrange all of them.”
.NET Framework provides support for calling Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) via managed code from April 2014 in Visual Studio 2013 Update 2. However, Mono has provided support for SIMD Extensions as of version 2.2 within the Mono.Simd namespace; before. Mono’s lead developer Miguel de Icaza has expressed hope that this SIMD support will be adopted by CLR’s ECMA standard. Streaming SIMD Extensions have been available in x86 CPUs since the introduction of the Pentium III. Some other architectures such as ARM and MIPS also have SIMD extensions. In case the CPU lacks support for those extensions, the instructions are simulated in software.
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